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State of J&K has three district regions viz Kashmir, Jammu & Ladakh. Administratively, the state has been re-organized into 22 districts, including, 8 new districts (4 each in Kashmir & Jammu divisions) which were created during the year 2006-07. The districts are further divided into 82 tehsils, 142 CD blocks, 6652 villages, 68 Urban areas besides 7 Urban Agglomerations. The geographical area of the State is 222236 Sq Kms which includes an area of 1,21,449 sq kms under illegal occupation of China and Pakistan.
As per 2001 census, the population of the state is 101.44 lakhs which constitutes 0.98% of the total population of the country and comprises 53.61 lakh males and 47.83 lakh females, with the sex ratio of 892 compared to national level of 933. The density of population is 100 per sq km on comparable area. The decadal population growth rate for the state is 29.98%, which is one of the highest in the country. 75.19% population is rural and 24.81% population is urban.
Ladakh region receives very little rainfall. The climate of plain areas of Jammu is very similar to that of Punjab. The valley of Kashmir experiences severe winter, pleasant spring and moderate summer. Most of Kashmir and Ladakh has a single cropping pattern and in Jammu more than one crop is harvested. The cropping intensity in the state is 146.41%. Cropping intensity is higher in Jammu Division (171%) as compared to Kashmir (121%). In Kashmir the major cereal crops grown are rice, maize & wheat. In Jammu, major cereal crops are wheat, maize and rice. World famous saffron is grown in pockets of Kashmir and Kishtwar.
Agriculture is the main stay of the economy of the state. A big chunk of the population in the State derives its livelihood from Agriculture. The gross and net area sown is 1126.41 thousand hectares and 741.56 thousand hectares respectively.
Horticulture is one of the major component of states economy and has potential for further development. That is why this sector is targeted for heavy investment. Under the Reconstruction Plan, Rs. 100 crores are available for rejuvenation of Old/Senile orchards, farm mechanization and construction of water storage tanks market development, controlled atmosphere storage and refrigerated transportation besides processing and value addition.
To ensure quality and proper grading, c-grade fruit(culled fruit) is procured from the orchardists at Rs. 5 per kg, and supplied to the processing units at the subsidized rates.
By introducing modern techniques of grafting and biotechnology methods like tissue culture, the quality of mango, lichi & guava is being improved.
Area under Horticulture has increased from 0.16 lac hectares in 1950-51 to 2.95 lacs hectares in 2007-08.
Fruit production (dry & fresh) has gone up from 12.74 lakh MTS in 2003-04 to 13.32 lakh MTS in 2004-05 and to 16.36 lakh MTS in 2007-08. Export of Fresh fruit and dry fruit has increased to 7.50 lakh MTS and 0.16 lakh MTS respectively during 2007-08. Export of Walnut outside the Country was 2746 MTS in 2007-08 resulting in earning of foreign exchange of Rs. 6.34 crores.
In order to make available advanced technologies to the fruit growers in the State and also to provide job trainings in advanced fruit growing technologies, the State has established three advanced training centres for Horticulture Development. Of these, two are located in Kashmir Division and one in Jammu Division. These centres are also functioning as plant receiver/retrieval and multiplication centres. Thrust is being given to production and multiplication of high density plants of apple, cherry, pear, grafted on colonal root stocks, olive, strawberry, kiwi and stone fruit, besides production of grafted walnut plants.
The perennial rivers in the state provide an excellent base for generation of Hydro-electric power. State has a hydel power potential of 20,000 MWs of which 16480 MWs have been identified. However, due to scarcity of resources, very little potential has been exploited so far. The State Government is according highest priority to generation of power and highest level of allocation are provided for power generation in the Annual Plans of J&K State.
During last three years 5 HEPs viz. Bhaderwah (1MW), Pahalgam (3MW), Igomercilong (3 MW), Haftal (1 MW), Marpichoo (0.75 MW), under state sector have been completed, which has added 9.25 MWs to the existing Generation Capacity in the State. Dulhasti (390 MWs) has been completed & commissioned in April 2008. Whereas, Baglihar (450 MWs) and Sewa II (90 MWs) are expected to be completed during the current financial year, which will add 930 MWs to the power installation both in Centre and State Sectors. This will really help the state on the energy front and will in turn boost the industrial investment in the State.
10 Micro Hydro Electric Projects (108 MW) have been allotted to private entrepreneurs out which four are in advanced stage of execution. 18 more Micro Hydro Electric Projects (137 MW) are being offered to private sector for execution.
1000 Micro Hydro Power Projects being constructed under Reconstruction Plan will generate 6000 KVAs.
under the ambitious Rajiv Gandhi Vidyuti Karan Yojana, all villages and desirous house holds will be electrified. DPRs for all the 14 erstwhile districts have been prepared for Rs. 700 crores. However, Government of India have sanctioned these projects at a cost of Rs. 579.11 crores. Projects in seven districts will be executed by the NHPC and in other seven districts by J&K SPSDC.
Entire Transmission and Distribution System is being improved and upgraded. Detailed Project Report for Rs. 1350 crores has been sanctioned by the GOI. Construction of 34 Grid Stations of varying capacity & Construction of Transmission lines is under progress 132 KV Grid station at Barn has been commissioned and seven more have been completed. Besides under the APDRP programme, massive investment is being made for up-gradation of STD system.
Srinagar- Leh transmission line project estimated at Rs. 634 crores has been replaced by two power projects namely Nimu Bazgo (45MWs) and Chutak (44 MWs). Execution is going on in full swing. Both projects are expected to be completed by 2010 (Sept/Nov). However, to enable these stations to transmit power after completion, outside Leh during summer, State Government has taken up the issue with GOI for laying of Srinagar-Leh transmission Line.
For providing world class facilities, the development of tourist infrastructure has been the priority of the State Government. For focused attention, Tourism Development Authorities have been constituted. Besides state intervention, huge investment is being made under the Reconstruction Plan. 50 tourist villages are being developed at Rs. 31.50 crores. This cost has also been revised to Rs. 35.00 crores. A tourist circuit is being developed to cover Lakhanpur-Basoli-Bani-Bhaderwah-Kishtwar-Sinthan-Srinagar. Besides already established Tourism Development Authorities at Pahalgam, Gulmarg, Sonamarg and Patnitop, new Tourism Development Authorities have been established at Kokernag, Leh, kargil, Baderwah, Kistwar, Poonch, Rajouri, Lakhanpur, Verinag, Aharabal, Yousmargh, Dudpathri, Wullar Manasbal and Zanskar etc. These authorities will get a financial assistance of Rs. 20 crores each under the Reconstruction Plan. Gulmarg is being developed for holding international level Skiing competitions. Construction of Tourist Reception Centre at Qazigund is under progress and a new Tourist reception Centre will be constructed at Srinagar.
Tourist arrivals to the Valley have picked up considerably. Religious tourism is witnessing a huge- up swing with 69.50 lac pilgrims performing Shri Mata Vaishno Devi Yatra and nearly 3 lac pilgrims visiting Shri Amar Nath Ji Cave during 2006.
During 2002-07, Industries Department has cleared 126 projects owned by some well known multinationals/Indian corporate houses, in Medium and large scale sector, with expected investment of Rs. 2650 crores. These projects have potential for creation of jobs for 22700 individuals. Similarly, 50470 SSI units stand registered with employment of 2.33 lacs persons ending March, 2008.
The handicrafts sector traditionally strong in the State, is being modernized rapidly. Satellite center of the Indian Institute of Carpet Technology has been established at Srinagar to provide design and market intelligence and improved manufacturing technology in the carpets. Craft Development Institute has been established at Srinagar for creation of design and development facility besides setting up of workshops for Handicrafts to act as Common Facility Centre for the benefit of manufacturers and artisans.
Common facility centre for washing of carpets, preparing raw materials for paper machie and seasoning of wood has been set up at Srinagar. Raw material bank has been set up at Srinagar to assist artisans in obtaining raw materials at reasonable prices. Corporation has made a Sale of Rs. 400 lacs so far through the said bank.
Urban Hatts at Jammu and Srinagar have been completed. Arts emporium building completed at Srinagar. State Industrial & Handicrafts Exhibition held during 2007-08 at Srinagar after a gap of 17 years.
9 Industrial Training Institutes has been established in Doda, Poonch, Rajouri, Udhampur, Srinagar, Anantnag, Kupwara, Baramulla and Pulwama, under PM’s Reconstruction Plan. Two new women’s Polytechnics have been opened, one each at Leh and Kargil under State Plan
The state has been covered under the National Rural Health Mission. 39 CHCs have been upgraded to Indian Public Health Standard Level (IPHS). 9764 ASHAS have been selected and imparted training. 96 PHCs have been made functional. 6745 village Health & sanitation. Committees have been constituted.
Medical Colleges at Jammu and Srinagar are being upgraded to the level of AIIMS. Land has been identified and Rs.120 crores each under the Reconstruction Plan are earmarked for this purpose. Execution is going on in full swing.
Massive programme of building the infrastructure in Health Sector is being launched. Presently, this is taken care of, under the State Plan and the NRHM. However, proposal has been mooted to GoI to provide necessary assistance of Rs.1500 crores over a period of 3 to 4 years for completion of ongoing schemes, providing of additional accommodation to the existing health institutes, construction of health institutes in 8 newly created districts and providing of equipment.
Road connectivity is essential for the development of the economy. State could not benefit properly from Phase-I &II of PMGSY. However, after constituting a dedicated team of engineers for the said purpose, it started showing the results. A number of projects have been completed and various projects are under progress. Flyover in Srinagar, Budshah Bridge, Gawkadal Bridge, Foot Bridge at Lal Mandi, 3rd bridge on Tawi, last limb of Arterial Express way at Jammu has been completed. R.S. Pura-Chakori road, Circular road Jammu and Katra Domel road have been completed. Satwari R.S. Pura road including the bridge, Thatri Kalantra road Inshan Margan road and Chenani Gordi roads are under progress.
Under the Reconstruction Plan, a number of vital roads have been taken up for upgradation which are under progress such as Widening of Domel Katra road, Upgradation of Khanbal Pahalgam, Narbal Tangmarg road, Batote Kishtwar road, 4 laning of Srinagar Uri-LOC and Double laning of Srinagar Leh road are also under progress.
Under the Golden Quadrilateral, 4 laning of National Highway up to Srinagar is under progress. The work form Lakanpur to Jammu Bypass and Athwajan to Parimpora is in progress. Once the 4 laning of these roads is completed, the travel time will get reduced by about 4 hours.
Mugal road project is expected to be completed in two years however, it may be thrown open for traffic during the current year. It will serve as an alternate road to Kashmir valley. Srinagar-Leh, Batote-Kistwar-Sinthan road, Khanabal Pahalgam road, Narbal- Tangmarg road, Domel Katra- road, Nemu-padam-Domel Katra road, Nemu-Padam-Darchai road, Baramulla-Uri LOC road are being upgraded under the Prime Minister’s Reconstruction Programme.
Srinagar Airport has been declared as International Airport and work is on full swing to provide world class facilities at the Airport.
Under Bharat Nirman, uncovered Habitations will be connected with road connectivity.
Udhampur has been connected with railways on Udhampur- Baramulla section. Udhampur-Katra line will be completed by the current year and work is in progress from Katra to Qazigund.
Under ADB funding, Rs.1611 crores are available for infrastructure development especially for road connectivity, water supply and drainage.
In order to ensure fool proof delivery mechanism, Old age pension for 1.74 lakh beneficiaries which has been enhanced from Rs. 150 to Rs. 250 per beneficiary and the same is being distributed through postal service and Banks.
8317 Anganwari centres have been sanctioned under Reconstruction Plan. This will provide employment opportunities to an equal number of Anganwari workers and helpers. The infant mortality rate in J&K is much lower than the national average. Besides, hostel buildings are also being constructed for SC/ST & OBC students.
During 2007-08 pre-matric Scholarship was provided to 10871 Sc students, 77744 OBC students, 185000 Gujjar & Bakerwal students and 4437 physically handicapped students also, Post-matric scholarship was provided to over 80,000 SC students and 2998 OBC students during the said year.
119 villages (one in each block) are being developed as model villages with an investment of Rs. 1.20 crores in each village. Besides, setting up of one Community Information Centre and one Common Facility Centre, upgrading of lanes/drains, roads, parks etc in these model village is being undertaken.
National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme has been launched in the most backward districts of Doda, Poonch and Kupwara.
Out of 12854 uncovered schools, about 7000 schools have been provided with water supply. 581 water supply schemes are under implementation under Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme and 447 schemes are under implementation under Minimum Needs Programme. So far 122 schemes have been completed. Out of 11 towns taken up under Accelerated Urban Water Supply Programme, one is being completed in the current year and rest during next year.
During 10th Five Year Plan Period (2002-07) 2760 Primary Schools, have been upgraded to Middle Schools. 401 Middle Schools to High Schools and 295 High Schools to Higher Secondary Schools. During 2007-08, 711 Primary Schools, 121 Middle Schools and 58 High Schools have been upgraded to Middle, High and Higher Secondary Schools respectively. Upgradation programme may continue during 2008-09 as well.
Twenty two new colleges have been set up at Akhnoor. R.S. Pora, Samba, Hiranagar, Bilawar, Kathua, Thanamandi, Mendhar, Budgam, Beerwah, Bandipora, Sopore, Dooru, Ganderbal, Reasi, Kulgam, Ramnagar, Ramban, Mahanpor, Bijbehara, Uri and Basholi. Four new campuses of the Jammu University and Kashmir University have been opened at Baramulla, Anantnag, Bhaderwah and Kathua. Three new Universities (Mata Vaishno Devi University, Baba Ghulam Shah Badshah University & Islamic University) have been opened.
Under ARSWP, 1233 schemes have been taken up for execution since 2005-06 and 286 stand completed by 2007-08, covering 1483 habitations. In Kandi areas, against 259 schemes, 27 have been completed with coverage of 85 habitations. 447 schemes stand taken up under MNP and 66 have been completed which have covered 263 habitations by providing safe drinking water facility.
For people living on the international border/LOC, affected by cross-border shelling in Jammu region, temporary shelters are being constructed, village infrastructure is being rebuilt and damaged houses are being repaired and restored. The Home Ministry has released an amount of Rs.59.18 crores for implementation of the programme.
Elections of all Urban Local Bodies was held after 25 years. Municipal functioning has been transferred to local bodies along with staff and funds. State Government has also approved the Municipal Reforms Act, such as repealing of urban land ceiling and regulatory act, rationalization of stamp duty, reforms of rent control to stimulate private investments in rental housing.
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